Enjoy Free Fall Glossary

This glossary will help you become familiar with words and common terminology about skydiving, wingsuit flying, base jumping, and indoor skydiving.


  • AAD (Automatic Activation Device) – An Automatic Activation Device, commonly known as an AAD, is a small electronic device designed to automatically deploy the skydiver’s reserve parachute under specific conditions. It acts as a backup safety measure, activating the reserve parachute if the main parachute has not been deployed by a certain altitude or speed. The AAD provides an additional layer of protection and helps ensure the safety of the skydiver in case of emergency

  • Accelerated freefall (AFF) – Accelerated Freefall is a popular training method for first-time skydivers to quickly gain independence and experience the thrill of solo skydiving. During AFF, the student jumps with two instructors who provide guidance in freefall. As the training progresses, the student gradually gains more responsibility and performs a variety of maneuvers, such as controlled turns and tracking. AFF allows individuals to progress at an accelerated pace, ultimately leading to the ability to skydive solo.

  • Accuracy landing – Accuracy landing is a skydiving discipline that challenges jumpers to land as close as possible to a designated target on the ground. It requires a combination of skill, precision, and control. Skydivers must use their knowledge of canopy flight, wind patterns, and body positioning to navigate their parachutes with accuracy. Accuracy landing competitions often add an element of fun and friendly competition to the sport, encouraging jumpers to continuously improve their landing skills.

  • Adrenaline – Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone and neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the body’s response to stress and excitement. When skydiving, the adrenaline rush is often described as an exhilarating surge of energy and heightened awareness. It can result in increased heart rate, improved focus, and a sense of euphoria. The release of adrenaline during skydiving contributes to the thrilling experience and creates lasting memories for those who take part in this adventure sport.

  • Air drag – Air drag, also known as aerodynamic drag, refers to the resistance encountered by an object as it moves through the air. In the context of skydiving, air drag plays a crucial role in the dynamics and control of your body during freefall.

  • Air Pressure – Air pressure refers to the force exerted by the weight of the Earth’s atmosphere on objects within it. In skydiving, understanding air pressure is essential for safe and controlled flight. Skydivers must consider air pressure changes at different altitudes, as they affect the performance of their parachutes, their overall flying experience, and the pressure equalization within the skydiver’s body. Rapid changes in air pressure can put pressure on the eardrums, hence it is not recommended to go skydiving when being sick.

  • Air resistance – Air resistance, or aerodynamic drag, is the force that opposes the motion of objects in the air. During skydiving, air resistance affects speed and stability. Skydivers can adjust their body position to manipulate air resistance. Streamlining the body reduces resistance for increased speed, while spreading limbs or changing angles increases resistance for greater control and maneuverability.

  • Airspeed – Airspeed is the speed at which an aircraft or skydiver moves through the air. In skydiving, airspeed is crucial for maintaining stability, controlling body movements, and executing maneuvers. Skydivers utilize their body position, the shape of their limbs, and the placement of their hands and feet to control their airspeed during freefall. Understanding and managing airspeed helps skydivers maintain control, interact with the airflow, and perform various formations and maneuvers with precision.

  • Altimeter – An altimeter is a device used to measure altitude, which is the vertical distance above a reference point, typically sea level. In skydiving, an altimeter is an essential instrument worn by skydivers to monitor their altitude during a jump. It provides vital information about the skydiver’s current height above the ground, allowing them to time the deployment of their parachutes accurately. The altimeter helps skydivers maintain safety and make informed decisions throughout their skydiving experience.

  • Angle flying – Angle flying is a skydiving discipline in which a group of jumpers flies in a specific body orientation to the horizon (mostly head-down or 45° to the horizon) and looks at the assigned leader of the jump. This discipline requires skill, coordination, and teamwork when flying with others.

  • Angle of attack – The angle of attack refers to the angle between the wing of a skydiver’s parachute and the oncoming airflow. It plays a crucial role in controlling lift, speed, and the overall flight characteristics of the parachute. Skydivers adjust the angle of attack by manipulating their body position and canopy control inputs to achieve desired flight performance. Understanding and managing the angle of attack is essential for safe and efficient canopy flight, allowing skydivers to enjoy a smooth descent and landing.

  • Audible altimeter – An audible altimeter is an electronic device used in skydiving that provides skydivers with audible altitude alerts during their freefall and parachute descent. It emits beeps or tones at specific altitude thresholds, ensuring skydivers deploy their parachutes at the appropriate altitudes for a safe and controlled landing.

  • Aviation medical examiners – Aviation Medical Examiners (AMEs) are specialized doctors responsible for conducting medical examinations to ensure the health and safety of pilots, aviation personnel, and skydivers. They assess physical fitness, review medical histories, perform examinations, and determine if individuals meet the required medical standards for aviation in general and for skydiving specifically. AMEs provide guidance on health and manage any medical conditions, promoting well-being within the aviation and skydiving community.


  • Back-facing-earth – Back-facing-earth is a term used in skydiving to describe a body position during freefall where the skydiver is facing the sky with their back toward the Earth. It is an intermediate body position that skydivers can adopt to perform various maneuvers or formations. Back-facing-earth adds versatility and creativity to the skydiving experience, allowing for exciting and visually captivating aerial displays.

  • Ballistic nylon – Ballistic nylon is a durable synthetic fabric widely used in the manufacturing of skydiving equipment, such as skydiving jumpsuits, harnesses, containers, and parachute canopies. It is known for its exceptional strength, abrasion resistance, and tear resistance. The use of ballistic nylon in skydiving gear ensures durability and longevity, providing skydivers with reliable equipment that can withstand the demands and forces experienced during jumps and landings.

  • Barrel roll – A barrel roll is an aerobatic maneuver performed by skydivers and pilots, involving a rolling motion around the longitudinal axis of an aircraft or the body of a skydiver. During a barrel roll, the aircraft or skydiver completes a full 360-degree rotation while following a helical or spiral path.

  • BASE jumping – BASE jumping is an extreme sport that involves jumping from fixed structures or natural formations, including buildings, antennas, spans (bridges), and earth (cliffs). The acronym “BASE” stands for the four categories of objects from which one can jump. BASE jumping combines the exhilaration of skydiving with the unique challenges of jumping from stationary objects closer to the ground.

  • Belly-to-earth – Belly-to-earth is a term used to describe a skydiver’s body position during freefall when they are facing the ground with their abdomen or belly down. It is the most common and stable body position for beginners and those learning skydiving techniques. The belly-to-earth position provides stability, allows for easy control of movement and navigation, and forms the foundation for more advanced maneuvers and formations in the sky.

  • BIRDMAN – Birdman is a pioneering wingsuit manufacturing company founded by Jari Kuosma in 1999. It introduced the first commercially produced wingsuit, revolutionizing wingsuit flying and enabling controlled horizontal flight during freefall. BIRDMAN’s designs and training programs popularized the sport worldwide, shaping the modern wingsuit industry.

  • Blur – In skydiving, “blur” refers to the intense rush of adrenaline and exhilaration experienced during freefall. It is that moment when the world around you becomes a blur as you descend rapidly through the air. The blur represents the sheer speed and sensory overload as you soar through the sky. It’s a thrilling sensation that evokes a mix of excitement, awe, and pure adrenaline. The blur is a defining aspect of the skydiving experience, creating lasting memories and a sense of freedom like no other.

  • Breakoff – Breakoff is a term used in group skydiving to indicate the point at which skydivers disengage from a formation or group and create separation to deploy their parachutes safely. During a skydive involving multiple participants, such as a formation or a skydiving team, there comes a moment when the skydivers need to separate from each other to avoid potential canopy collisions.

  • Bungee Cord – A bungee cord is a strong and elastic rope typically made from rubber or synthetic materials. It is designed to stretch significantly and then recoil back to its original length. In adventure sports like bungee jumping, a bungee cord is securely attached to the jumper and the jumping platform. The cord’s elasticity plays a crucial role in absorbing the jumper’s downward momentum and creating a rebound effect, which contributes to the thrilling and safe experience of the jump.

  • Bungee jumping – Bungee jumping is an extreme sport in which participants jump from tall structures such as a bridge or a platform while attached to a stretchable cord. The bungee cord’s elasticity absorbs the downward momentum and propels the jumper back up, creating a pendulum-like motion until coming to a stop. This activity relies on the physics of potential energy and elasticity to provide a controlled and thrilling descent.


  • Canopy – In skydiving, a canopy refers to the parachute system that allows skydivers to descend safely and land softly. The canopy consists of a fabric wing-like structure that catches the air, providing the necessary lift and slowing down the skydiver’s descent. Canopies are designed to be durable, reliable, and responsive to control inputs.

  • Canopy control – Canopy control refers to the skill and technique of maneuvering and controlling the parachute canopy during the descent and landing phase of a skydive. Skydivers utilize various inputs, such as steering lines or toggles, to control the canopy’s flight path, speed, and direction. Mastering canopy control is essential for achieving precise landings, navigating obstacles, and safely flying in proximity to other skydivers. It requires an understanding of aerodynamics, wind patterns, and the specific flight characteristics of the canopy being used.

  • Canopy piloting – Canopy piloting is a specialized discipline within skydiving that focuses on precise control and maneuvering of the parachute canopy. Also known as “swooping,” canopy piloting involves performing dynamic turns, dives, and swoops close to the ground, often over a water or designated landing area. Skilled canopy pilots push the limits of their equipment and expertise to achieve high-speed maneuvers and accurate landings. Canopy piloting showcases the agility and finesse of both the skydiver and the canopy system, offering an exciting and visually impressive aspect of the sport.

  • Collision – In skydiving, a collision refers to an unintended contact or impact between two or more skydivers or their canopies during freefall or under the canopy. Collisions can occur due to factors such as misjudgment of flight paths, communication breakdowns, or unexpected wind conditions. Avoiding collisions is of utmost importance in skydiving to ensure the safety of all participants. Collision can also refer to a collision between a skydiver and an aircraft – even though this rarely happens.

  • Comfortable jumpsuit material – Comfortable jumpsuit material refers to the fabric used in the construction of skydiving jumpsuits that provides a pleasant and comfortable experience for the skydiver. Jumpsuits are designed to protect the skydiver from wind chill, provide freedom of movement, and enhance aerodynamics during freefall. Examples of comfortable materials include NylonTaslanTaffeta, and Supplex.

  • Cordura – Cordura is a type of high-performance fabric commonly used in the manufacturing of skydiving equipment, including jumpsuits, harnesses, and containers. It is known for its exceptional durability, abrasion resistance, and strength, making it well-suited for the demands of skydiving. Cordura provides reliable protection against wear and tear, ensuring that skydiving gear can withstand the rigors of the sport and maintain its integrity over time.

  • Cutaway – Cutaway refers to a specific emergency procedure performed by a skydiver when there is a malfunction with the main parachute. In such situations, a cutaway involves intentionally disconnecting the main canopy from the skydiver’s harness system to eliminate entanglement or other issues. It allows the skydiver to initiate the deployment of the reserve parachute as a backup. Cutaways are carefully trained and rehearsed to ensure a swift and effective response in case of a malfunction, promoting safety and a successful outcome during emergencies.

  • Cutaway handle – A cutaway handle is a designated handle or mechanism on the skydiver’s harness system specifically designed for initiating a cutaway procedure. The cutaway handle is easily accessible and strategically positioned, allowing the skydiver to quickly and confidently disconnect the main canopy from the harness system during emergency situations.


  • Diamant elastic – Diamant elastic is a type of elastic cord often used in skydiving equipment. It is a durable and strong elastic material that provides secure connections and tension in various components. Diamant elastic is commonly used for skydiving jumpsuits and other parts of the skydiving equipment.

  • Down draughts – Down draughts, sometimes referred to as downdrafts, are downward currents of air that can occur during skydiving operations. These air movements are caused by various factors, including temperature differentials, atmospheric conditions, and wind patterns. Down draughts can affect the descent and flight characteristics of skydivers and parachutes, leading to changes in airspeed, lift, and stability. Skydivers must be aware of down draughts and skillfully navigate through them to maintain control and ensure a safe landing.

  • Drogue parachute – A drogue parachute is a small auxiliary parachute used in skydiving for specific purposes. It is typically deployed shortly after exiting the aircraft and serves to stabilize the skydiver’s freefall. The drogue parachute reduces the terminal velocity, slowing down the descent and allowing for better control and stability. It is particularly useful for activities such as formation skydiving, wingsuit flying, and tandem jumps, where a steady and controlled fall is desired. Once the desired altitude is reached, the drogue parachute is released, and the main parachute is deployed for the remainder of the descent.

  • Drop zone or Dropzone (DZ) – Dropzone or drop zone, often abbreviated as DZ, is a term used to refer to the skydiving facility or location where skydiving operations take place. It encompasses the entire area, including the hangars, packing areas, boarding areas, and the designated landing zone. The dropzone serves as a hub for skydivers, instructors, and staff, providing facilities, services, and equipment necessary for safe and enjoyable skydiving experiences.

  • Durable jumpsuit material – Durable jumpsuit material refers to the fabric used in the construction of skydiving jumpsuits that can withstand the demanding nature of the sport. Jumpsuits are designed to provide protection against wind chill, abrasions, and wear and tear. Durable materials, such as TeflonBallistic Nylon, and Cordura, are commonly utilized to ensure the jumpsuit’s longevity and resistance to the rigors of skydiving.


  • Eddies – In the context of skydiving, eddies refer to localized air currents or pockets of swirling air that can occur during freefall or under the canopy. These circular air movements are influenced by various factors such as wind direction, terrain, and the relative position of the skydiver to surrounding objects. Eddies can sometimes cause unpredictable shifts in airspeed, stability, and canopy control.

  • Emergency procedure – Emergency procedures in skydiving are predetermined actions and protocols that skydivers follow in critical or unexpected situations. These procedures are designed to address various emergencies such as parachute malfunctions, equipment failures, or situations that require immediate action. Skydivers receive thorough training on emergency procedures to ensure they can respond effectively and safely during high-stress situations. By following these procedures, skydivers can mitigate risks, initiate corrective actions, and maintain their safety and the safety of others.

  • Entanglement – In skydiving, entanglement refers to the dangerous situation where parachute lines or equipment become tangled or intertwined. It can occur due to packing errors, deployment mistakes, or collisions. Entanglement compromises the functionality and control of the parachute system, posing a significant risk. Skydivers are trained to prevent entanglement through proper packing, equipment maintenance, and situational awareness. In case of entanglement, emergency procedures like cutaway are performed.

  • Exit point – The exit point is the precise location within the aircraft from which skydivers exit during a jump. It is carefully chosen based on factors such as wind direction, aircraft configuration, and desired flight path. The exit point ensures that skydivers exit the aircraft safely, in the desired orientation, and at the appropriate altitude. Skydivers and instructors coordinate to ensure smooth exits, allowing for safe separation and optimal positioning in the sky for various types of jumps and formations.

  • Exits (e.g., belly, back, sit, tracking) – Exits in skydiving refer to the various body orientations or positions adopted by skydivers when they exit the aircraft during a jump. Common exits include belly, back, sit, and tracking positions. Belly exits involve facing the earth with the abdomen downward, while back exits involve facing the sky with the back toward the earth. Sit exits involve sitting on the edge of the aircraft door or fuselage. Tracking exits involve immediately assuming a horizontal or angled position to gain forward movement during freefall. Different exits are used depending on the type of jump, formation, or desired flight path, offering diversity and creative possibilities in skydiving.

  • Extreme athlete – An extreme athlete is an individual who participates in adrenaline-fueled and high-risk sports, including skydiving. These athletes possess a passion for pushing boundaries, embracing challenges, and seeking intense experiences. Extreme athletes often engage in activities that require physical and mental stamina, skill, and a strong sense of adventure. They constantly strive to improve their abilities, explore new possibilities, and overcome personal limits including high-altitude jumps, jumps without parachutes, or incredible wingsuit jumps.


  • FAA – FAA stands for the Federal Aviation Administration, a regulatory body in the United States that oversees and regulates civil aviation including skydiving. In the context of skydiving, the FAA plays a significant role in setting safety standards, issuing licenses and certifications, investigating skydiving accidents, and establishing rules and regulations for skydiving operations. They ensure that skydiving activities are conducted safely and in accordance with established guidelines, promoting the overall safety and integrity of the sport.

  • Feet-down position – The feet-down position, also known as the stable body position, is a fundamental posture for skydivers during freefall. In this position, skydivers extend their arms and legs while keeping their body straight and stable, with the feet pointed downward towards the Earth. The feet-down position provides stability and control in the air, allowing skydivers to maintain a consistent fall rate and control their movements. It is the starting point for learning other body positions and maneuvers in skydiving.

  • Flare or flaring– Flare refers to the controlled action of decelerating the descent rate of the parachute just before landing. By pulling down on the control toggles, skydivers increase the angle of attack of the parachute, causing an increase in lift and a decrease in forward speed. The flare maneuver allows skydivers to land more softly and precisely by reducing the vertical descent rate. It requires skill and timing to perform the flare effectively, ensuring a gentle touchdown and a smooth end to the skydive.

  • Flaring

  • Flexible jumpsuit material – Flexible jumpsuit material refers to the fabric used in the construction of skydiving jumpsuits that offers freedom of movement and flexibility. Jumpsuits are designed to provide comfort, protection, and aerodynamic performance during freefall. Flexible materials, such as  LycraSpandexDiamant ElasticSupplex, allow skydivers to move their bodies freely and adopt different body positions without restriction.

  • Formation flying

  • Formation skydiving or formation flying – Formation skydiving is a popular discipline in which a team of skydivers works together to perform predetermined formations during freefall. The team plans and practices specific sequences and formations that involve linking up or building formations in the air. Formation skydiving requires precise body control, communication, and synchronization among team members.

  • Freebasing – An innovative technique combining free solo climbing without ropes and a BASE parachute rig. Pioneered by Dean Potter, this approach enabled climbers to transform potential falls into BASE jumps, offering a chance of survival by deploying the parachute. It opened up new exit points for wingsuit jumps, expanding the possibilities of wingsuit flying and exploration in extreme sports.

  • Freefly – Freefly is a dynamic and acrobatic discipline in skydiving that involves performing complex maneuvers and movements during freefall. Unlike traditional belly-to-earth positions, free-flyers orient their bodies in different orientations, including head-down, sit-flying, or vertical flying. Freeflyers explore multidimensional flight, mastering intricate movements, and creating visually stunning formations in the sky.


  • G-force – G-force, short for gravitational force, refers to the force experienced by an object or a person due to the acceleration caused by gravity. In skydiving, G-forces are felt during certain maneuvers, such as rapid changes in speed, turns, or canopy control.

  • Glide ratio – The glide ratio represents the ratio of horizontal distance covered to the vertical distance descended by a skydiver in freefall or under the canopy. For example, a glide ratio of 3:1 indicates that three horizontal meters are covered for every meter of descent. The glide ratio in freefall is determined by factors such as wind, the skydiver’s body position, and the surface area of the jumpsuit. The glide ratio under the canopy depends on the canopy design, size, and the relative position of the canopy to the wind.

  • Goggles – Goggles are an essential piece of equipment in skydiving, designed to protect the skydiver’s eyes from wind, debris, and the elements during freefall and canopy flight. Skydiving goggles feature a secure and comfortable fit, often with an adjustable strap to ensure a snug fit around the head.

  • GoPro – GoPro is a popular brand of action cameras used by skydivers to capture their skydiving experiences on video. GoPro cameras are small, lightweight, and easily mountable to helmets or other equipment. Cameras can be either attached to a helmet or to one of the hands.

  • Gravitational pull – Gravitational pull refers to the force of attraction between objects due to gravity. In the context of skydiving, the gravitational pull of the Earth is the force that draws skydivers toward the ground during freefall. Skydivers experience the full effect of gravitational pull during freefall until the parachute is deployed, at which point the canopy creates lift to counteract the gravitational force, allowing for a controlled descent and landing.


  • HAHO jump – HAHO (High Altitude High Opening) jump is a technique used in skydiving where the skydiver jumps from a high altitude (above 30,000 ft, 9,150 m) and immediately opens their parachute. Due to the high altitude, HAHO jumps requires skydivers to wear oxygen masks.

  • HALO jump – HALO (High Altitude Low Opening) jump is a technique used in skydiving where the skydiver jumps from a high altitude (above 30,000 ft, 9,150 m) and delays opening their parachute until they reach a low altitude. Unlike a HAHO jump, during a HALO jump, the skydiver spends an extended period of time in freefall to travel long distances before deploying the parachute at a low altitude.

  • Hang gliding – Hang gliding is an aerial recreational activity characterized by utilizing a lightweight, unpowered glider, known as a hang glider. The glider comprises a fabric wing stretched over a frame, with the pilot suspended beneath the wing in a harness. By adjusting their body position and manipulating hand controls, pilots navigate the glider through the air, capitalizing on natural updrafts to achieve sustained flight.

  • Hard landing or high-impact landing – A hard landing refers to a landing during a skydive that is relatively forceful or abrupt. It may occur when the skydiver touches down with more speed or impact than desired, resulting in a less gentle landing. Factors that can contribute to a hard landing include wind conditions, canopy control, body positioning, and the type of landing surface. Although skydivers aim for soft and controlled landings, sometimes circumstances or errors can lead to harder landings.

  • Harness – A harness in skydiving refers to the specialized equipment worn by the skydiver that attaches them securely to the parachute system. The harness consists of straps, buckles, and other components designed to distribute the forces evenly across the body during freefall, canopy flight, and landing. It provides a secure and comfortable connection between the skydiver and the parachute, allowing for controlled and safe descents. Harnesses are adjustable to accommodate different body sizes and shapes, and they undergo rigorous safety inspections to ensure their integrity and functionality.

  • Head-down – Heads-down is a body position used in advanced skydiving disciplines, such as freeflying or vertical formation skydiving. In the heads-down position, the skydiver’s body is oriented vertically with the head pointing downward toward the ground. This position allows for dynamic and acrobatic movements during freefall, enabling skydivers to perform complex maneuvers, flips, and formations.

  • High-impact collisions – High-impact collisions refer to incidents where two or more skydivers collide with significant force during freefall or under the canopy. High-impact collisions can occur due to misjudgment of flight paths, communication breakdowns, or unexpected wind conditions. These collisions pose a severe risk to the safety of skydivers and can result in injuries or worse.

  • High-impact landings

  • Hook knife – A hook knife is a specialized cutting tool carried by skydivers as part of their safety equipment. It features a sharp, retractable blade housed in a handle that can be easily accessed when needed. In emergency situations, such as entanglement with parachute lines or other materials, a hook knife allows skydivers to quickly and safely cut themselves free. It serves as a last resort option to mitigate the risks associated with entanglement or other critical situations during a skydive.

  • Hook turn – A hook turn is an aggressive maneuver performed under canopy where the skydiver initiates a sharp and rapid turn by manipulating the control toggles of the parachute. The aim of a hook turn is to generate a high rate of turn and increase the horizontal speed. Hook turns are often executed close to the ground, and if performed incorrectly or without proper skill, they can pose a significant risk.

  • Hook-in system – A hook-in system refers to the mechanism that attaches the skydiver to the parachute harness and container system. It consists of sturdy metal hooks or similar hardware that securely fasten the main parachute, reserve parachute, and other essential components to the skydiver’s harness. The hook-in system is designed to ensure a reliable and fail-safe connection between the skydiver and the parachute system throughout the entire skydiving experience.

  • Hypoxia – Hypoxia, also commonly known as altitude sickness, is a condition that can occur during skydiving or any activity at high altitudes. As you ascend to higher elevations, the air becomes thinner, resulting in reduced levels of oxygen available for breathing. This lack of oxygen can lead to various symptoms, affecting both your physical and mental state. The symptoms of hypoxia may vary from mild to severe, and they can include headache, dizziness, shortness of breath, fatigue, nausea, and confusion. These effects can significantly impact your ability to perform tasks and make decisions during a skydive, potentially compromising safety.


  • Indoor skydiving – Indoor skydiving, also known as vertical wind tunnel flying, is a simulated skydiving experience that takes place indoors. It involves a vertical wind tunnel that generates a powerful upward airflow, allowing individuals to float, maneuver and experience the sensation of freefall in a controlled environment. Indoor skydiving provides a unique opportunity for beginners to learn and practice body-flight skills before attempting outdoor skydiving. It is also possible to conduct indoor wingsuit flights.

  • Inertia – Inertia refers to the property of matter that describes its tendency to resist changes in motion. In skydiving, one example of inertia is the fact that skydivers will first move in the direction of the aircraft after their exit. Inertia also plays a role during various phases of the jump, including exits, maneuvers, and parachute deployments.

  • Inverted – Inverted refers to a body position in skydiving where the skydiver is oriented upside down, with the head pointing towards the ground and the feet towards the sky.


  • Landing speed – Landing speed is the ground speed of a skydiver just before they touch down during landing. The landing speed will vary based on the type of parachute used, the skydiver’s weight, the wind conditions, and the chosen landing area. Skydivers aim to control their landing speed to reduce their risk of injury and improve their landing accuracy.

  • Line twists – Line twists occur when the suspension lines of a parachute become tangled or twisted during or after deployment. They can happen due to various factors, such as body movements, deployment dynamics, or wind conditions. Line twists are one of the major reasons why parachutes fail and can affect the canopy’s flight characteristics. Line twists often require corrective action by the skydiver to untwist the lines and restore normal canopy flight.

  • LineoversLineovers are parachute malfunctions that occur when one or more suspension lines become entangled or caught around the canopy or its lines during deployment. Lineovers can significantly affect the parachute’s inflation and flight characteristics, compromising its ability to provide a safe descent. Skydivers are trained to identify lineovers and follow emergency procedures to correct the malfunction, such as executing a cutaway and deploying the reserve parachute.

  • Lycra – Lycra is a stretchable and form-fitting fabric commonly used in skydiving jumpsuits. Jumpsuits made of Lycra provide a snug and comfortable fit while allowing freedom of movement during freefall and canopy flight. Lycra jumpsuits reduce air resistance, enhance the skydiver’s aerodynamic profile, and contribute to an enjoyable and streamlined skydiving experience.


  • Motion sickness – Motion sickness refers to the feeling of nausea, dizziness, and discomfort that can occur when the body’s sensory systems receive conflicting or unfamiliar information about motion and equilibrium. In skydiving, some individuals may experience motion sickness, especially during the initial stages of freefall or when performing acrobatic maneuvers even though it is far less common in skydiving than when riding a roller coaster.


  • NASA – NASA, short for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is the United States government agency responsible for civilian space exploration, aeronautics research, and aerospace technology development. Although not directly related to skydiving, NASA’s research and advancements in areas such as aerodynamics, materials science, and human factors have had an impact on the field of skydiving. Technologies and knowledge derived from NASA’s space exploration programs have often found applications in areas like parachute design, safety equipment, and human performance in extreme environments.

  • No pull / low pull – No pull or low pull refers to situations where a skydiver either fails to deploy their parachute or deploys it at a lower-than-desired altitude. These situations pose significant risks as they reduce the time available for the parachute to fully inflate and slow down the skydiver’s descent. Skydivers undergo thorough training to develop a disciplined approach to parachute deployment and to ensure that they initiate the deployment sequence at a safe and appropriate altitude.

  • Nylon – Nylon is a durable and lightweight synthetic fabric commonly used in the construction of skydiving equipment, including skydiving jumpsuits, parachute canopies, harnesses, and containers. Nylon offers excellent strength-to-weight ratio, resistance to abrasion, and favorable aerodynamic properties. These qualities make it an ideal choice for skydiving gear, as it withstands the rigors of freefall, canopy flight, and landing.


  • Packing mat – A packing mat is a specialized surface used by skydivers for packing their parachutes. It provides a clean and dedicated workspace where the parachute can be carefully and systematically packed. The packing mat is typically made of durable materials that allow for easy handling of the parachute, such as nylon or similar fabrics. It helps skydivers maintain the cleanliness and integrity of their parachutes while ensuring proper packing techniques are followed to ensure a safe and reliable deployment during a skydive.

  • Parachute – A parachute is a vital piece of safety equipment used in skydiving to slow down the descent of a skydiver during freefall and ensure a controlled descent and landing. It consists of a canopy made of lightweight, durable fabric that is designed to inflate and provide drag when deployed. The canopy is attached to a harness system worn by the skydiver, connecting them securely to the parachute. Parachutes are carefully designed and constructed to provide optimal aerodynamic performance, stability, and reliability, enabling skydivers to enjoy a safe and thrilling experience in the sky.

  • Parachute landing fall (PLF) – The Parachute Landing Fall or PLF is a technique used by skydivers to land safely and with minimal risk of injury. During a PLF, the skydiver absorbs the impact of the landing by rolling forward or to the side, using the momentum to soften the landing. The basic PLF technique involves pulling the knees up to the chest and rolling to the side in the direction of the wind. This technique distributes the force of impact across the body, reducing the risk of injury to the ankles, knees, and hips.

  • Parachute packing – Parachute packing is the process of carefully folding and stowing the parachute into its container to ensure proper deployment and functionality during a skydive. Skydivers learn specific packing techniques based on the type of parachute system they use. Proper packing is essential to prevent line twists, maintain the integrity of the canopy, and facilitate smooth deployment.

  • Parachute rigger – A parachute rigger is a certified professional responsible for the inspection, maintenance, and repair of parachutes and associated equipment. Parachute riggers ensure that parachutes are in proper working condition and comply with safety standards. They play a critical role in maintaining the reliability and integrity of parachute systems through regular inspections, packing, and repairs. Parachute riggers receive specialized training and certification to perform their duties and ensure the safety of skydivers. Many tandem instructors also work as parachute riggers in order to increase their salaries.

  • Parachute rigging – Parachute rigging is the process of inspecting, maintaining, and packing parachutes to ensure their safe and reliable operation. Parachute rigging is performed by certified parachute riggers who possess specialized knowledge and skills in handling parachute systems. Rigging includes meticulously folding and stowing the parachute, inspecting and replacing worn or damaged components, and verifying that the entire system meets strict safety standards.

  • Parachute-flying speed – Parachute-flying speed refers to the speed at which a parachute descends through the air when fully deployed. The flying speed depends on various factors, including the design of the parachute, the size of the canopy, the weight of the skydiver, and environmental conditions such as wind speed. Parachute-flying speed is typically controlled by the skydiver through adjustments of the control toggles, allowing them to navigate, maneuver, and descend at a comfortable and safe speed during canopy flight.

  • Paragliding – Paragliding is a recreational activity that involves flying a lightweight, foot-launched glider known as a paraglider. Paragliders are inflatable wings made of fabric and lines that allow individuals to soar through the air using natural updrafts and thermals. It provides a serene and graceful flying experience, enabling pilots to stay airborne for extended periods and explore the beauty of the surrounding landscape.

  • Paramotoring or powered paragliding (PPG) – Paramotoring combines paragliding with a small engine and propeller unit worn on the pilot’s back. The engine provides thrust and enables the pilot to take off from flat ground and maintain altitude without relying solely on natural wind currents. Paramotoring offers the freedom of flight with the added benefit of powered control, allowing pilots to explore various areas and enjoy longer flights.

  • Parapack fabrics – Parapack fabrics are a type of durable, lightweight and abrasion-resistant fabric commonly used in skydiving jumpsuits. These fabrics are engineered to withstand the rigors of skydiving activities, providing durability and longevity to the jumpsuit. Parapack fabrics typically offer a balance between strength and weight, making them ideal for skydiving gear where durability and flexibility are essential.

  • Paraplegic – A paraplegic in the context of skydiving refers to an individual who has paralysis or impairment in the lower half of their body, typically due to a spinal cord injury. Paraplegia affects the legs, lower trunk, and pelvic organs, often resulting from traumatic injuries or medical conditions affecting the spinal cord. In the realm of skydiving, individuals with paraplegia can still participate in the sport through specialized equipment and adaptations. These adaptations may include custom harnesses, modifications to the parachute system, and assistance during landing. Paraplegic skydivers may need assistance in controlling the parachute and ensuring a safe landing.

  • Parasailing, parakiting or parascending – Parasailing, parakiting, or parascending involves being towed behind a moving vehicle or boat while attached to a specially designed parachute-like canopy. This activity allows participants to experience the sensation of flight and enjoy panoramic views from an elevated position. The canopy catches the wind, lifting the participant into the air, while the towline controls the height and speed of the flight.

  • Pilot chute – A pilot chute is a small parachute-like device used in skydiving to initiate the deployment of the main parachute. It is deployed by the skydiver and creates drag, which in turn pulls the main parachute out of its container. The pilot chute plays a crucial role in the parachute deployment sequence, ensuring a reliable and timely opening of the main canopy. It is connected to the parachute system via a bridle or deployment bag and is designed to be lightweight and quickly responsive to initiate the deployment process.

  • Pin check – A pin check is a safety procedure performed before a skydive to ensure that the parachute deployment system is properly secured. Skydivers visually inspect the pins that hold the main parachute container closed, ensuring they are correctly inserted and secured. A thorough pin check confirms that the parachute system is ready for deployment and reduces the risk of an unintentional or premature parachute release. The pin check is an essential step in the pre-flight routine, promoting safety and ensuring the integrity of the parachute system.

  • Pressure suit – A pressure suit is a specially designed garment worn by skydivers for protection, comfort, and aerodynamics during freefall and canopy flight. They provide thermal insulation, reduce the risk of abrasion or burns, and often include additional padding and reinforcements in high-impact areas.


  • Reserve problems – Reserve problems refer to issues or malfunctions that can occur with the reserve parachute system during deployment or while under canopy. Although reserve parachutes are meticulously maintained and inspected, unexpected problems can arise, such as line twists, lineovers, or canopy entanglement. However, the likelihood of a reserve problem is extremely low.

  • Reserve parachute – A reserve parachute is a backup parachute system carried by skydivers as a safety precaution in case the main parachute fails to deploy or malfunctions. The reserve parachute is packed and maintained separately from the main parachute and is designed to provide a reliable and controlled descent in the event of an emergency. It is typically smaller in size than the main parachute but constructed with similar durability and performance standards.


  • Safety regulations/protocols/standard – Safety regulations, protocols, and standards in skydiving refer to the established rules and guidelines that govern the safe conduct of skydiving activities. These regulations are developed by governing bodies, such as the USPA and the FAA, to ensure the highest level of safety for skydivers. They encompass various aspects, including equipment requirements, training standards, operational procedures, and emergency protocols.

  • Safety training – Safety training is a vital component of skydiving education, providing skydivers with the knowledge and skills necessary to safely participate in the sport. Safety training covers a wide range of topics, including aircraft safety, equipment operation, emergency procedures, canopy control, and proper body position during freefall. Through comprehensive safety training programs, skydivers learn to identify potential risks, mitigate hazards, and respond effectively to emergency situations.

  • Sensory overloadSensory overload refers to an overwhelming or excessive stimulation of the senses that can occur during skydiving. The combination of high altitude, wind noise, rapid movement, and visual stimuli can create a sensory-rich environment that may temporarily overload the sensory systems. Skydivers may experience heightened sensations, such as an adrenaline rush, increased heart rate, and intensified visual perception. Managing sensory overload is an important aspect of skydiving, and experienced skydivers learn to adapt and maintain focus to ensure optimal performance and safety during the jump.

  • Sit-flying-position – The sit-flying position is a body position used in freefall where the skydiver is seated in an upright posture, resembling sitting on an imaginary chair. In this position, the legs are bent, and the arms are extended forward or held at the sides for stability and control. Sit-flying allows skydivers to achieve relative stability in the air and perform a wide range of maneuvers, including turns, spins, and formations.

  • Sitting landing – The sitting landing is a controlled landing method used by experienced skydivers to touch down comfortably in a seated position. Unlike other conventional landings where skydivers stand or slide in, the Sitting landing allows the jumper to maintain a seated posture as they gently make contact with the ground. This technique is often employed when landing in limited or tight spaces, such as small drop zones or areas with obstacles nearby. To execute a Sitting landing, the skydiver keeps their legs extended in front of them and flexes at the hips and knees to absorb the impact upon landing. The Sitting landing is not recommended for beginners, as it requires precise timing and skill to execute safely. However, for seasoned skydivers, it provides a controlled alternative to traditional landings and can add a touch of flair to their skydiving repertoire.

  • Skydiving – Skydiving is an exhilarating sport that involves jumping from an aircraft and freefalling through the air before deploying a parachute to slow down and land safely. Skydiving offers participants a unique experience of human flight, combining adventure, adrenaline, and breathtaking views. It requires proper training, equipment, and adherence to safety protocols to ensure a safe and enjoyable experience. Skydiving can be conducted solo or in a tandem jump.

  • Skydiving accidents – Skydiving accidents refer to unfortunate incidents that occur during skydiving activities, resulting in injury or property damage. While skydiving has inherent risks, accidents are relatively rare due to strict safety regulations, comprehensive training programs, and ongoing equipment advancements. Accidents can be caused by various factors, including equipment malfunction, human error, adverse weather conditions, or unforeseen circumstances.

  • Skydiving fatality / fatalities – Skydiving fatality or fatalities refer to unfortunate incidents in which a skydiver sustains injuries that result in death during a skydiving activity. While skydiving is an adventure sport with inherent risks, fatalities are extremely rare. Accurate reporting, analysis, and investigation of any fatalities are critical in identifying potential areas for improvement and enhancing safety measures to prevent similar incidents in the future.

  • Skydiving certificate / license / levels (A, B, C, D) – Skydiving license levels, typically categorized as A, B, C, and D, represent a progressive system of skill development and training milestones for skydivers. Each license level requires the completion of specific training requirements, such as classroom instruction, practical exercises, and a minimum number of logged jumps. As skydivers progress through the license levels, they gain the necessary knowledge, proficiency, and experience to undertake more advanced skydiving activities, such as group jumps, formation skydiving, or specialized disciplines. Earning higher license levels demonstrates a skydiver’s dedication to learning and their ability to operate safely within the sport.

  • Skydiving stunts – A skydiving stunt refers to a planned and controlled aerial performance or demonstration executed by experienced skydivers. Stunts can involve complex formations, acrobatic maneuvers, smoke trails, or other visual effects to entertain spectators or capture attention during special events, exhibitions, or film productions. Skydiving stunts require meticulous planning, coordination, and advanced skills to ensure the safety of all participants and the successful execution of the desired visual spectacle.

  • Skysurfers or Skysurfing – Skysurfing is an extreme discipline within skydiving where the skydiver performs acrobatic maneuvers while attached to a specially designed board, similar to a snowboard or a wakeboard. Skysurfers use the board to enhance their aerial maneuvers, including spins, flips, and twists, during freefall. The board is typically strapped to the skydiver’s feet, allowing them to maneuver in a manner similar to surfing or skateboarding in the sky. Skysurfing requires advanced skydiving skills, significant experience, and specialized equipment to perform safely.

  • Slide-in landing – The slide-in landing is a smooth and controlled technique used by skydivers to touch down gently and gracefully. As the name suggests, it involves sliding into the landing area with finesse rather than coming to a sudden stop. To perform a Slide-In landing, the skydiver typically glides along the ground with their feet forward and slightly lifted, reducing the impact and allowing for a seamless transition from freefall to landing. This technique is particularly useful when landing on harder surfaces or in situations where a soft, stand-up landing might be challenging. It requires skill and practice, but once mastered, the Slide-In landing can become an impressive and efficient way to conclude a thrilling skydive.

  • Slider – A slider is a device used on some types of parachutes to control the deployment speed and opening forces during parachute deployment. It is a fabric component that slides down the suspension lines of the parachute as it inflates, allowing the canopy to open gradually and reducing the initial shock or jolt of the opening process. The slider serves to slow down the deployment, prevent line twists, and ensure a smooth and controlled opening sequence.

  • Slider stop – A slider stop is a specific technique used by experienced skydivers to prevent or limit the movement of the slider on the suspension lines after the parachute is fully deployed. By positioning their hands or applying gentle pressure on the slider, skydivers can prevent it from sliding down the lines, which can reduce the overall canopy performance and increase the descent rate.

  • Spandex – Spandex is a stretchable synthetic fiber commonly used in the construction of skydiving jumpsuits. Spandex provides a snug fit, flexibility, and freedom of movement, allowing skydivers to maintain a streamlined profile during freefall. It enhances aerodynamic performance, reduces air resistance, and minimizes the risk of fabric flapping.

  • Specialized skydiving helmet – A specialized skydiving helmet is a headgear designed specifically for skydiving purposes. These helmets offer protection, comfort, and functionality to skydivers during freefall and canopy flight. Specialized skydiving helmets typically feature impact-resistant shells, cushioning liners, and adjustable chin straps to secure the helmet in place. They may also have integrated goggles, communication systems, or mounts for cameras or altimeters. These helmets provide vital head protection while allowing skydivers to communicate, maintain situational awareness, and incorporate additional equipment as needed.

  • Specialized suit -A specialized suit is a garment designed for specific skydiving disciplines or advanced aerial maneuvers. These suits are tailored to provide optimal aerodynamics, range of motion, and performance characteristics for the intended skydiving activity. Specialized suits may include wing-like extensions, grippers, reinforced knee and elbow areas, or other design features to enhance maneuverability and control during freefall or canopy flight. Typical examples are skydiving jumpsuits, wingsuits, and tracking suits.

  • Spotting – Spotting in skydiving refers to the process of determining the precise exit point from an aircraft for a skydiving jump. Accurate spotting ensures that skydivers exit the aircraft at the desired location, considering factors such as wind drift, desired landing area, and planned skydiving activities. Spotting requires coordination between the pilot, skydivers, and ground support personnel to identify and communicate the correct exit point to ensure safe and successful jumps.

  • Squirrel – In skydiving, “squirrel” is a term used to describe a skilled skydiver who excels in canopy control and performs advanced canopy maneuvers. These maneuvers may include swooping, high-performance landings, and precise control of the parachute during flight. Squirrels often specialize in canopy piloting and are known for their agility, precision, and the ability to navigate their parachutes with exceptional skill.

  • Stall or stalling – Stalling in skydiving and wingsuit flight refers to a loss of lift caused by disrupted airflow over a parachute canopy or wingsuit, leading to a decrease in altitude and controllability. This occurs due to an excessive angle of attack, where the surface of the canopy or wingsuit is positioned too steeply relative to the oncoming air.

  • Stand-flying-position – Stand-flying, also known as “upright flying,” refers to a skydiving body position where the skydiver is vertical in the air with their legs straight and their arms close to their sides. This body position usually requires specialized gear, such as inflatable pants and bootslicens, to help the skydiver maintain the position. Stand-flying is a challenging and thrilling aspect of skydiving that requires a significant amount of skill and practice to master. Experienced skydivers can use stand-flying to perform exciting formations and maneuvers with other skydivers in the air.
  • Steerable canopy – A steerable canopy, also known as a ram-air canopy, is a type of parachute designed with control surfaces that allow the skydiver to maneuver and control the direction and speed of the descent. Unlike round parachutes, which have limited control capabilities, steerable canopies feature cells and lines that create an airfoil shape, enabling skydivers to influence the canopy’s flight path. By manipulating the control toggles, skydivers can perform turns, fly in a straight line, adjust the descent rate, and navigate the canopy to the desired landing area.

  • Stow – Stow, in skydiving terminology, refers to the process of securing or fastening various components of the parachute system. Skydivers stow their suspension lines, control toggles, or other components using techniques such as line stows, rubber bands, or Velcro straps. Proper stowing ensures that the parachute remains compact and organized within the container, reducing the risk of entanglement, line twists, or inadvertent deployments.

  • Stratosphere skydivers – Stratosphere skydivers refers to skydivers who participate in skydiving activities at very high altitudes within the stratosphere, which is the second major layer of Earth’s atmosphere. The stratosphere typically starts around 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) above the Earth’s surface. Skydiving from the stratosphere is an extreme and challenging endeavor that involves ascending to significant heights using specialized aircraft or vehicles and then performing a skydive from that altitude. The altitude at which stratosphere skydiving occurs provides a unique and thrilling experience due to the extreme height, reduced air pressure, and low temperatures. Stratosphere skydiving often involves specialized equipment, such as pressure suits or space suits to protect skydivers from the harsh environmental conditions at high altitudes. Additionally, oxygen supply may be necessary due to the thinning atmosphere and reduced oxygen levels.

  • Swooping – Swooping is an advanced canopy maneuver performed by experienced skydivers with specialized high-performance canopies. It involves flying the canopy at high speeds, initiating a rapid descent, and using precise control inputs to generate lift and perform low-altitude, high-speed passes close to the ground. Swooping is typically performed in designated areas under specific conditions and is regarded as an exhilarating but demanding discipline within skydiving.


  • Taffeta – Taffeta is a smooth and lightweight fabric commonly used in the manufacturing of skydiving jumpsuits. It offers is used for inner parts of skydiving jumpsuits due to its wearing comfort. Taffeta fabric provides a comfortable fit and allows skydivers to move freely during freefall and canopy flight.

  • Tandem instructor – A tandem instructor is a highly trained and certified skydiving professional responsible for guiding and ensuring the safety of passengers during tandem skydiving experiences. Tandem instructors possess extensive skydiving experience, instructor qualifications, and specialized training in tandem skydiving techniques. They are skilled at managing all aspects of the tandem skydive, including the pre-flight briefing, gear checks, in-air instruction, and landing.

  • Tandem student – A tandem student refers to an individual who participates in a tandem skydive as a passenger, guided by a tandem instructor. Tandem students typically do not require any previous skydiving experience or training, as the tandem instructor assumes full responsibility for the safe conduct of the skydive. Tandem students experience the thrill of freefall and the serenity of canopy flight while enjoying a high level of support and guidance from the instructor.

  • Tandem suit – A tandem suit is a specialized jumpsuit worn by tandem instructors and students during tandem skydiving. Tandem suits are designed to provide comfort, flexibility, and durability, allowing for unrestricted movement during freefall and parachute flight. Tandem suits often feature additional padding and reinforced areas to enhance durability and protect against wear and tear.

  • Taslan – Taslan is a synthetic fabric widely used in the production of skydiving jumpsuits. It is known for its durability, water resistance, and breathability, making it suitable for various weather conditions and environments. Taslan fabric provides comfort, flexibility, and excellent resistance to abrasion, ensuring that skydivers can move freely and perform maneuvers without restrictions. Its quick-drying properties are particularly advantageous in wet or humid conditions, contributing to the overall comfort and performance of the skydiver.

  • Teflon – Teflon is a nonstick material that is often used in the construction of skydiving jumpsuits, parachute containers and associated components. It offers excellent resistance to friction and allows smooth movement of the parachute deployment system or in the skydiving jumpsuit. Teflon coatings or inserts help reduce wear and tear on the equipment, and enhance the overall functionality and reliability of the skydiving system.

  • Terminal velocity – Terminal velocity is the maximum velocity or speed that a skydiver can achieve during freefall due to the balance between gravitational forces and air resistance. When a skydiver falls through the atmosphere, they accelerate due to gravity. However, as their speed increases, air resistance builds up until it becomes equal to the force of gravity. At this point, the skydiver reaches terminal velocity, and their speed remains constant. Terminal velocity in skydiving typically is around 120 mph, depending on the body position and equipment.

  • Tracking – Tracking is a technique used by skydivers to control their horizontal movement during freefall. By assuming a specific body position and extending their arms and legs, skydivers create lift and generate forward movement through the air. Tracking allows skydivers to cover horizontal distances, adjust their flight paths, and maintain separation from other skydivers during group jumps or formation skydiving.

  • Tracking dive – A tracking dive is a planned skydiving maneuver where a group of skydivers, each assuming a tracking body position, moves together in a horizontal direction during freefall. Tracking dives are often performed as part of training exercises, fun jumps, or formation skydiving routines, adding an element of excitement and teamwork to the skydiving experience.


  • USPA – USPA stands for the United States Parachute Association, which is the governing body for the sport of skydiving in the United States. The USPA is responsible for setting safety standards, conducting instructor certifications, promoting skydiving education, and organizing competitions and events. They ensure that skydiving operations and facilities meet established guidelines and maintain a high level of safety. The USPA also provides resources, training materials, and support for skydivers of all levels, from beginners to experienced professionals.

  • USPA Canopy Piloting Proficiency Card – The USPA Canopy Piloting Proficiency Card is a record-keeping document used in the sport of skydiving issued by the United States Parachute Association (USPA), which serves as the governing body for the sport in the United States. The primary purpose of this Card is to track and assess a skydiver’s progression and skills in the area of canopy piloting. Canopy piloting refers to the advanced flying techniques and maneuvers performed under an open parachute or canopy, after the main parachute has been deployed.


  • Vertical current – Vertical current, also known as vertical wind or updraft, refers to the vertical movement of air in the atmosphere. It occurs when warm air rises or cool air sinks, creating vertical airflows that can affect skydivers during freefall or under canopy. Vertical currents can vary in intensity and direction, and experienced skydivers learn to interpret and navigate them effectively to enhance their flying experience. Understanding vertical currents is important for performing maneuvers such as going up with a parachute or when opening parachute too early.

  • Vertical wind tunnel – A vertical wind tunnel, often referred to as an indoor skydiving facility or simply a wind tunnel, is a specially designed structure that simulates the experience of freefall by generating a column of upward-flowing air. Skydivers or participants enter the wind tunnel and experience the sensation of weightlessness and controlled flight as the powerful airflow supports their body. Vertical wind tunnels are used for training, skill development, and practicing skydiving techniques in a safe and controlled environment. They provide an accessible and controlled alternative to traditional outdoor skydiving.

  • Visor – A visor is a protective shield or cover that can be attached to a skydiving helmet. Visors are designed to shield the face and eyes from wind, debris, and excessive sunlight during freefall and canopy flight. They provide clear visibility, reduce distractions, and enhance comfort for skydivers. Visors are typically made of shatter-resistant materials, such as polycarbonate, and are designed to securely attach to the helmet while allowing for easy adjustment and ventilation.


  • Wind drift – Wind drift refers to the horizontal displacement or movement of a skydiver or canopy under the influence of wind currents during freefall or under canopy flight. Wind drift can affect the skydiver’s intended flight path, accuracy of landing, and ability to navigate to a desired landing area. Skydivers must account for wind drift by evaluating wind direction and speed, making appropriate flight adjustments, and utilizing steering inputs to maintain control and reach their intended landing point safely.

  • Wind forecast – A wind forecast provides information about the expected wind conditions at a specific location and time. Skydivers use wind forecasts to assess weather patterns, determine suitable jumping windows, and make informed decisions regarding skydiving activities. Wind forecasts provide data on wind speed, direction, gusts, and potential changes over time. By staying informed about wind forecasts, skydivers can plan their jumps, select appropriate equipment, and ensure safe and enjoyable skydiving experiences.

  • Wind tunnel – A wind tunnel is a research or training facility that generates controlled airflow to study the effects of aerodynamics on various objects, including skydivers and their equipment. Wind tunnels consist of a long, narrow chamber with powerful fans or blowers that produce a steady and controllable stream of air. Skydivers use wind tunnels for training, refining body positions, practicing maneuvers, and improving stability and control during freefall. Verticla wind tunnels are often used for indoor skydiving whereas horizontal wind tunnels are used to train wingsuit flying.

  • Wing loading – Wing loading refers to the amount of weight, typically expressed as a ratio, that is supported by the wing surface area of a parachute or canopy. It is calculated by dividing the total weight of the skydiver and equipment by the canopy’s wing area. Wing loading affects the flight characteristics and performance of the parachute, including descent rate, maneuverability, and responsiveness. Skydivers consider wing loading when selecting canopies to match their skill level, experience, and desired flying style, ensuring an appropriate balance between performance and safety.

  • Wingsuit flight simulator – A wingsuit simulator combines virtual reality and physical elements to replicate the sensation of wingsuit flying. Participants wear VR glasses to experience a visual representation of flight, while an actual wingsuit, suspension system, wind effects, and multi-sensory stimulation create a lifelike environment.

  • Wingsuit proximity flying – Wingsuit proximity flying is an extreme form of wingsuit flying where skilled flyers maneuver their wingsuits close to natural terrain or man-made structures, such as mountainsides, cliffs, or buildings. Proximity flyers aim to maintain a thrilling proximity to the surfaces while carefully managing their flight path and speed. Wingsuit proximity flying is often combined with dangerous yet amazing stunts.


  • XRW – XRW, an abbreviation for “Extreme Relative Work,” refers to a specialized discipline where skydivers in wingsuits fly in proximity to skydivers under parachutes, creating dynamic and visually stunning formations. XRW combines the elements of wingsuit flying and canopy flight, requiring precise coordination, communication, and a deep understanding of both disciplines. XRW represents the convergence of two distinct skydiving disciplines into a thrilling and visually captivating performance.


  • Zero-porosity materials – Zero-porosity materials refer to fabrics used in skydiving jumpsuits that possess an extremely tight weave or coating, making them almost impermeable to air. These fabrics have minuscule pores, which prevent air from passing through them effectively. This aids in maximizing the suit’s aerodynamic efficiency and performance during a skydive. This reduced air permeability contributes to better control, speed and lift while in freefall.

Kai Schmidt

Hi, I'm Kai. The first time I jumped out of an airplane and experienced free fall was one of the most amazing moments of my life. For me, skydiving does not only stand for freedom and independence but being present in the moment and being respectful to others and oneself. Now I want to share what I’ve learned with you.